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Abbrevia: Int. J. Bus. Financ. Econ. Res.

Language: English

ISSN: ISSN 2315-6210

DOI: 10.14412/IJBFER

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  1(1): 17-23, January 2019


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Van der Waldt D. L. R



International Journal of Business, Finance and Economical Research, Vol. 1(1), pp 017-023 January 2019


(ISSN 2315-6210) 2019 International Journal of Business, Finance and Economical Research,


Full Length Research Paper


Paid versus unpaid celebrity endorsement in advertising: an exploration


Van der Waldt D. L. R., Schleritzko N. E. A. and Van Zyl K.


Department of Marketing and Communication Management, Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, University of Pretoria, Republic of South Africa.




Advertising and marketing managers spend a great deal of money to have celebrities endorse their product. Some view it to be an effective form of advertising as evidenced by the number of celebrity-endorsed advertisements that have increased. Despite numerous amounts of research on celebrities endorsing a single product, little research has been conducted regarding the use of multiple-celebrity endorsements in advertising. This study is based on the research by Hsu and McDonald (2002), who documented the use of multiple-celebrity endorsement advertising in the milk moustache campaign in the USA. This study investigated the tendency towards correspondence inference of 200 respondents and researched their attitudes towards celebrities, the product being advertised, and the advertisement as a whole. The main findings are that there is a significant correlation between correspondence inference and attitudes towards the celebrity, but suggests that the levels of correspondence inference between the paid and unpaid situations depend on the celebrity. Implications are that marketers need to realize that correspondence inference might have an influence on people’s attitudes towards the celebrity who endorses the product.

Key words: Celebrity endorsements, paid versus unpaid, advertising, campaign, marketing, attitude, message appeals.


This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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