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Abbrevia: S. P. J. App Micro Res.


Language: English


ISSN: 2315-6287


DOI: 10.14412/SPJAMR


 S. P. J. App Micro Res.

4(3): 87-100, October 2019

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Science Park Journal of Applied Microbiology Research,

Vol. 4 (3), pp 087-100, October 2019

doi: 10.14412/SPJAMR2019.100

(ISSN 2315-6260) 2019 Science Park Journals


Full Length Research Paper


Serological detection of Trichinella antibodies in humans and risk factors associated with trichinellosis in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria.


Paul Isaac OJODALE1, Helen Ileigo INABO2, Elijah Ekah ELLA3, OluseyiOlayinka OKUBANJO4, Precious Rufus ENENYA5

1,2,3,5Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

4Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Surgery and Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria


Trichinellosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease caused by the ingestion of raw or undercooked meat especially pork containing Trichinella larvae. A total of 210 participants were tested for antibodies to Trichinella excretory-secretory (E/S) antigen using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). An overall prevalence rate of 39%(82/210) was established.The demographics of the study participants showed no significant association with the disease (p > 0.05).  Out of the 93 (44.3%) male participants examined 38 (18.1%) were positive for antibodies for Trichinella while female population had more respondents of 117 (55.7%) out of which 44 were positive representing 21% prevalence rate.  The male respondents showed greater odds of having trichinellosis (1.078 (0.794-1.466)) than their female counterparts (0.941 (0.732-1.209)).  The age group of ˂ 10 years had the highest prevalence of 19 (9%), followed by 10-19 years 17(8.1%). Individuals with secondary education had the highest prevalence rate of 33 (15.7%) and followed by those with primary education 22 (10.5%). Risk factors affecting the occurrence of trichinellosis was assessed and the type of meat eaten was significantly associated (χ2 = 30.855, p = 0.001) with trichinellosis with respondents having pork as their most preferred meat type having the highest prevalence of 45 (21.4%).  Dog meat, bush meat and beef eaters have 14 (6.7%), 14 (6.7%) and 4 (1.9%) prevalence respectively. Those who depend on chevon (goat meat) and those of poultry as their preferred meat source had prevalence of 2 (1%) and 3 (1.4%) respectively. The mode of cooking had no significant association with the disease but whether the pork was well-cooked or under-cooked was highly related to trichinellosis (χ2 = 19.756, p = 0.001).  Those who eat under-cooked pork showed greater oddsof coming down with the parasite than those who cooked their meat well.  Whether the respondents obtain their pork from the abattoir, market, hawkers or backyard slaughtering had no bearing with the disease.  Participants who have been to the slaughterhouse indicated a higher odds of having the disease (1.293 (1.021-1.637)) than those who have never stepped foot in a pig slaughterhouse (0.707 (0.503-0.994)) hence the significant association with trichinellosis 2 = 4.338, p ≤ 0.0037).   The prevalence among the hamburger, sausage or meat pie eaters is very high 76 (36.2%) compared to those who do not eat 6 (2.9%). Respondents’ knowledge of how Trichinella infects people was significantly associated with trichinellosis (χ2 = 14.23, p = 0.001).

Keywords: Antibodies, ELISA, Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria, Trichinella, Trichinellosis, risk factors, under-cooked, well-cooked.




This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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