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Abbrevia: J. Agric. Res Nat Resources.

Language: English

ISSN: ISSN 2315-6279

DOI: 10.14412/JARNR



  J. Agric. Res. Nat. Resour.      

  2(2): 013-030, November 2018

View: PDF (230KB)  





Journal of Agricultural Research and Natural  Resources,

Vol. 2 (2), pp 013-030, November 2018

doi: 10.14412/JARNR2018.030

(ISSN 2315-6279) 2018 Science Park Journals


Full Length Research Paper

Determination of Important Phenolic Compounds in Pakistani Brown Rice Varieties in Controlled, Germinated and Fermented Conditions by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Amir Hayat1*, Taj Muhammad Jahangir1, Muhammad Yar Khuhawar1, Malik Alamgir1,Razim Ali2, Arslan Ali3, andSyed Ghulam Musharraf3


1Institute of Advance Research Studies in Chemical Sciences, University of Sindh, Jamshoro-

76062, Pakistan.


2Department of Biotechnology/Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Karachi,

Karachi-75270, Pakistan.


3H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological

Sciences,University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.




Phenolic compounds have great importance for human consumption and also play an importantrole in plants. Brown rice contains representative amount of phenolic compounds, especially, inouter shell which are considered highly beneficial for humans. High performance liquid. Chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination and quantification of phenolic compounds and their accumulation in brown whole grain rice varieties of Pakistani origin in controlled condition. Their accumulation was studied during germination stages and fermentation process, thereby, providing a reliable and rapid method for their quantification in food samples. Calibration curves for the standard phenolic compounds showed good linear regression values (r2 =0.996-0.998) within the test ranges. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were found in the range of 0.04-0.06 g/ml and 0.166-0.205g/ml, respectively. Precision (%RSD) of the method was found in the range of 0.05-5.25 and 0.05-0.58 for inter-day (n=3) and intra-day (n=5), respectively. The robustness (%RSD) was found in the range of 1.05-2.65. Excellent recoveries were attained within the range of 93%-106%.The average amount of phenolic compounds was found to be 0.185 g/100g in controlled condition whereas, further accumulation of these compounds was noticed during germination and fermentation phases. The maximum average amount of phenolic compounds after germination period of 120 hours and fermentation process was found to be 0.284g/100gand 0.565 g/100g, respectively.


Key Words: Brown rice; Fermentation; Germination; HPLC; Phenolic compounds





This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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